Cúcuta, officially San José de Cúcuta, is a Colombian municipality, capital of the Department of Norte de Santander. It is located in the north-east of the country, on the eastern Andes mountain range, near the border with Venezuela. Cúcuta has a population of 777,000 residents censured, but it is estimated that the city has an average of 150,000 inhabitants of Venezuelan origin, who are not registered, it is then estimated that the city has 927,000 inhabitants. The urban area has a length of 10 km north to south and 11 km east to west consisting of 10 communes. It is the political, economic, industrial, artistic, cultural, sports and tourist epicenter of Norte de Santander. Cúcuta is the sixth most populated municipality in Colombia
From top and left to right: Northeast of the city with Erasmo Meoz University Hospital, Malecón de Cúcuta, Quinta Teresa Cultural Center, Simón Bolívar Monument in the same-name park, Monument to the Battle of Cúcuta in the Loma de Bolívar and Julio Pérez Ferrero Public Library.
|Other names: The pearl of the north, Porton de la Frontera, The Green City, The City of Trees, The Basketball Capital of Colombia |
|Slogan: Very noble, loyal and courageous|
Localization of Cucuta in Colombia
Location of Cúcuta in N. de Santander
|Coordinates||7°54′27″N 72°30′17″W / 7.9075, -72.50472222222222 Coordinates: 7°54′27″N 72°30′17″W / 7.9075, -72.50472222222222|
|・ Department||Norte de Santander|
|Mayor||Jairo Tomás Yáñez Rodríguez (AV) (2020 - 2023)|
|Subdivisions|| 10 corrections |
|・ Foundation|| June 17, 1733,|
|・ Total||1,176 square |
|・ Average||320 m s n. m.|
|・ Maximum||1600 m sec|
|・ Minimum||80 m sec. n. m.|
|Climate||Warm half-arid BSh|
|・ Total||777,106 (927,000 inhabitants counting the Venezuelans) hab |
|・ Density||637.76 room/km²|
|・ Urban||748,948 rooms.|
|・ Metropolitan||1 032 024 hab.|
|Gentilicio||Cucuteño, - |
|Time zone||UTC -5|
|Postal Code||540001-540019 |
|Sister with|| |
As capital of the Department of Norte de Santander, Cúcuta is home to government bodies of the departmental order such as the Governor of Norte de Santander and the Northern Assembly of Santander. The municipality is the head of the Judicial District of Cucuta, which has jurisdiction over 27 municipalities in Norte de Santander, is the seat of the High Court of Cucuta, which has jurisdiction over the entire department, and is also a seat at the departmental level for the Administrative Court, the Higher Council of the Judiciary and the Office of the Attorney General.
Urban development has exceeded administrative limits and has spread through the nearby municipalities that make up the Metropolitan Area of Cucuta, whose population is more than 1 million. The Venezuelan cities of San Antonio and Ureña are conurbated with the city of Cúcuta, although they are not an official part of the metropolitan area. The city is connected by roads with Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Valledupar, Tunja and Cartagena de Indias and because of its border position with Venezuela. Its air terminal is Camilo Daza International Airport. It has two indigenous universities, the Francisco de Paula Santander University, public university and the FESC University, private university, two of the insignia universities of the eastern Colombian.
In the city, the Constitution of 1821 was drafted and promulgated, creating the Gran Colombia, a free and sovereign state, formed by the current countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. In 1821, Simón Bolivar, Francisco de Paula Santander, and other people who are close to independence came together in what is now Villa del Rosario to promulgate that constitution, which officially declared Colombia as an independent republic. The Temple of Congress or Historical Temple, was the place where the constitution was promulgated and is now in ruins due to the 1875 Earthquake. The site is now part of the Colombian Grancolombian Park, which also contains the Homeland of Francisco de Paula Santander.
The city has a name that is composed in the way of almost all Spanish foundations in America. San Jose (one of the most widely known names on the continent thanks to the devotions of San Jose in Spain), honors José de Nazaret. The name Cúcuta is in honor of the chief Barí "Cúcuta", who ruled the region before the conquest. "Cucuta" in the language of the aborigines means "House of Elves". the city was known as San José de Guasimales from 1733 to 1793 when it changed to its current name.
The city's shield holds a caption that reads "Very noble, courageous and loyal Villa San José de Cúcuta", a title that was awarded to him by the king of Spain by royal ballot. José María Maldona, lawyer of the Royal Audience, made the legal presentation of the title of villa to the Virrey Ezpeleta on behalf of the neighbors.
The city has been named:
- The Pearl of the North.
- First Land Port of Colombia.
- Basketball capital of Colombia.
- Border gate.
- Cradle of the Republic.
- Green City, title received in 1988.
- Green municipality of Colombia, title received in 1990.
- Tree city.
Branches of public power
The city is the capital of the department of Norte de Santander. It houses the departmental government entities such as the Government and the Assembly and other State bodies. Cúcuta is governed by a democratic system based on processes of administrative decentralization, generated from the proclamation of the 1991 Constitution. It is governed by a mayor (executive), a municipal council (legislative) and an administrative court (judicial).
The Legislature is represented at the local level by the Council of Cucuta, which is a People's Choice Administrative Corporation, composed of 19 ediles of different political tendencies, democratically elected for a four-year term, and whose functioning is centered on the democratic participation of the community. The council is the city's legislative entity that issues binding agreements in its territorial jurisdiction. Its functions include approving mayors' projects, ensuring the preservation and defense of cultural heritage, issuing the organizational rules of the budget and issuing the annual budget of income and expenditure.
In the judiciary, Cúcuta is the main center of the judicial district of Cucuta, divided into the judicial circuits of Cucuta, Los Patios and Ocaña, which has courts in all areas of civil, family, criminal and administrative law. The Judicial Circuit of Cucuta has jurisdiction in 13 municipalities of the department: Cucuta, Arboledas, Bucarasica, El Zulia, Gramalote, Lourdes, Puerto Santander, Salazar de las Palmas, San Cayetano, Santiago, Sardinata, Tibú and Villacaro.
Regarding control entities, Cúcuta is a regional headquarters in the jurisdictions of the department of Norte de Santander, such as the Office of the Attorney General, the Office of the Comptroller General of the Republic and the National Registrar Office.
|General Secretariat||Planning Department||Camilo Daza Airport|
|Government Secretariat||Human Talent Department||Industrial and Commercial Company - Metrohousing-|
|Ministry of Finance||Municipal Accounting Department||Institute of Municipal Recreation and Sport -IMRD-|
|Transit and Transport Secretariat||Department of Internal Management Control||Transportation Central|
|Infrastructure Secretariat||Department Internal Disciplinary Control||Municipal Institute of Health - Imhealth|
|Ministry of Education||Sisben||Cucuta Technology Center|
|Secretariat for Social Development|
|Secretariat of Culture and Tourism|
|Secretariat of Equity and Gender|
|Social Welfare Secretariat|
|Press and Communications Secretariat|
|Corporate Planning and City Secretariat|
|Secretariat of the Bank of Progress|
|Secretariat of Health|
|City Safety Secretariat|
The city is divided into 10 communes, which contain 6,185 apples. There are about 800 neighborhoods. The rural area is comprised of 10 towns and 9 farmhouses.
Each commune and county has a Local Administrative Board - JAL - composed of no less than five or more than nine members, elected by popular vote for a four-year term that will coincide with the term of the Municipal Council.
A JAL performs functions relating to municipal plans and programs for the economic and social development of public works, monitoring and control of the provision of municipal services in its commune or district, and investments made with public resources, in addition to the distribution of the global items allocated to them by the municipal budget.
|1 - Center||Aguaclara||Arrayanes|
|2 - Eastern Center||Arena Bank||Boconó|
|3 - East South||Good Hope||High Wind|
|4 - East||The Soldier||El Carmen|
|5 - Northeast||Villamizar Port||The Portico|
|6 - North||Ricaurte||El Rodeo|
|7 - North West||San Faustino||La Jarra|
|8 - Western||San Pedro||Puerto León|
|9 - South-West||Guaramito||New Port|
|10 - Cemetery||El Palmarito|
|Urban Map||Commune Map||Rural Map|
The city, together with the municipalities of Los Patios, Villa del Rosario, San Cayetano, El Zulia and Puerto Santander, forms the so-called "metropolitan area of Cucuta". governs its operation in accordance with Law 128 of 1994' ("Organic Law of Metropolitan Areas").
The entity is run by the Metropolitan Board, it is advised by the Metropolitan Planning Council. It also has a director, a driver and an executive secretary. Finally, there is the technical director, the administrative and financial deputy director (who works with the treasurer-general), and the deputy director of transport and recovery.
During the pre-Columbian period, the area currently occupied by Cucuta was populated by indigenous Chitareros and Motilones, belonging to the Chibcha linguistic family and of Caribbean descent. Tribes were characterized by their nomadic customs and practiced agriculture and crafts. These indigenous peoples settled on the banks of the Zulia, Tarra, Sardinata, Catatumbo, Pamplonita and Táchira rivers.
Cúcuta didn't have a foundation like the ones used in the Conquest. The economic interests of the white inhabitants of the Cúcuta Valley and the hostility of the indigenous people (located on the other side of the Pamplonita River in what is now the San Luis District), and the problem that generated Juana Rangel de Cuellar that part of her hacienda was occupied by whites, led her to donate on June 17, 1733 half a cattle stay, in which the parish and the surrounding village would be located.
Notorious be those who see this obligatory writing, like us the residents of the city of Pamplona in the New Kingdom of Granada de las Indias, who live in the Valle de Cúcuta, jurisdiction of that city, where we attend and have houses and houses in our country dwellings we want those who we will later name: Having assembled and been certain and well educated of what is expressed here, we can and must do and the right that assists us and for the best success of what we intend...
whose foundation is to be made as a large cattle's stay, which in the said site of Guasimal for that purpose is donated by Doña Juana Rangel of Cuellar by Escritura, another of the Founders, a healthy land, with a calm plain for plant, having the river of Pamplona that passes through that site, for water and mountain for wood, for habitation of the inhabitants, common grass for the beasts what they have and land of work and irrigation and other requirements that are necessary for a foundation, and therefore for the Parroquia erection that we intend it is the first to ensure sufficient congruity for the cure...
In the Scripture of June 25, 1733, power is granted to Nicolás Dávila Maldonado, Captain Joseph Sánchez and missionary Manuel Núñez to request permission from the Archbishop of the New Granada and the Royal Audience for the erection of the parish and the founding of the city on behalf of the founders. Likewise, the founders, with their property and belongings, secured a rent for the pristine Cura. In the June 28, 1733, scripture, each of the founders of the population and of the parish erection commit and contribute what is necessary for the construction of the Temple.
On February 28, 1813, a military confrontation took place in the city between the pro-independence troops of Simón Bolívar, composed of 400 men and 800 realists of Ramón Correa, in the so-called Battle of Cúcuta. Bolívar and his troops enter Cúcuta, the victors, and at the headquarters of Cúcuta liberada, the leader of the independence side of victory.
Congress of Cucuta
- Complete articles: Congress of Cucuta, Constitution of Cucuta and Gran Colombia
- Related articles: Gran Colombia Park, Cúcuta Historical Temple, Santander House, and Bagatela House
On August 30, 1821, important leaders from Colombia and Venezuela met at the Villa del Rosario, including Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander, in what historians would call the Congress of Cucuta. This Congress was established by Antonio Nariño. The objective of this Congress was to unify the three countries into one nation, which was done through the Constitution of Cucuta. The resulting nation of the union was called the "Republic of Colombia". Mr. Quito (Ecuador) later joined the country.
At 11 a.m. on October 3, 1821, Simón Bolívar entered the session room located at the sacristy of the parish church of Villa del Rosario de Cúcuta. It was accompanied by a committee of Members and its general staff. He took a seat next to the President of Congress and all standing positions, swore as president of the nascent republic, made up of Venezuela and Cundinamarca, name assigned to the New Granada. After a speech and the inauguration of Francisco de Paula Santander as vice president, he was read the text of the Constitution.
- Complete articles: Dissolution of Greater Colombia and the Ocaña Convention.
On April 9, 1828, the Ocaña Convention was installed. The differences between Santander and Bolivarian were evident, with the former enacting federalism and the latter enacting strong central and presidential power.
The convention, which aimed to reform the Constitution of Cucuta was a failure, and the Bolivarians left the venue proclaiming Bolívar as a dictator.
On November 23, 1829, the governor of Carabobo gathered a popular assembly in Valencia, which was approved by a majority, the separation of Venezuela from Greater Colombia. There it was agreed that Venezuela should not continue to be united to New Granada and Quito.
The Cúcuta Earthquake
Also known as the Los Andes Earthquake, it occurred on May 18, 1875 at 11:15. completely destroyed Cúcuta, Villa del Rosario, and the Venezuelan municipalities of San Antonio del Táchira, and Capacho. It also caused serious damage in San Cristóbal, La Mulera, Rubio, Michelena, La Grita, and in current Panama, specifically in the city of Columbus, among others. It was felt in Bogota and Caracas. There are some differences about the number of victims, some say there were about 2,500, others say that the death list in Cucuta was about 1,000 people; however, 461 bodies were removed from the ruins and counted.
At the end of the 19th century, it is the first city in Colombia to have a railroad. The railroad was organized in four branches: North, East, South and West.
- North: Its construction began in 1878 and was completed ten years later. It connected Cúcuta with Puerto Santander and was international in nature, since it connected with Venezuela.
- East: Its construction began in 1893, spreading to the Rio Táchira.
- South: Its construction began in 1921, and led to Pamplona, but only reached the site called El Diamante
- West: It was meant to reach Tamalameque, but it could not materialize for economic reasons.
The company was liquidated in 1960.
The Thousand Days War was a civil war that devastated Colombia and Panama between 1899 and 1902. In Colombia, there was an economic crisis caused by the abrupt decline in international coffee prices and the weakness of the conservative government due to President Manuel Antonio Sanclemente's illness and old age. Political differences between conservative and liberal groups were abysmal, and radical sectors of both parties assembled armies. The conservatives had military forces and paramilitary elements, while the liberals operated like guerrillas. Cucuta played an important role because its population was majority liberal and many had become radicalized against the conservative government. The population was entrenched and besieged by radical liberals between early June and mid-July 1900.
After the end of the 1002 War and the beginning of the 20th century, the Industrial Revolution expands in Cucuta with the arrival of aviation. In 1919 the northwestern Andereano Camilo Daza, was the first Colombian to drive an airplane and is therefore recognized as the precursor of aviation in the nation.
With the century began a period of urban flourishing as well. In the 1920s, the first airport in Hispanoamerica was opened, Colombia being the first country to have commercial airlines. The Camilo Daza International Airport was inaugurated in 1971 by the then President of the Republic.
In 1991, Decree No. 000508 created the metropolitan area of Cucuta, composed of Cucuta, as the main center, as well as Villa del Rosario, Los Patios, El Zulia, Puerto Santander and San Cayetano. , as this conurbation exists legally, important projects for the development of the city are being developed. One of them is to place two tolls on the roads to Venezuela (one on each track), in order to expand part of the Pan American Highway to 6 lanes.
During the period 2004-2008, the construction of 5 vehicle crossings at a slope was carried out, which significantly improved road infrastructure and mobility in the city.
The mega-projects, which are financed by resources from the general benefit recovery contribution, were advanced in the San Mateo dome, the airport dome, the construction of the La Gazapa bridge over the Pamplonita River, depressed from the Libertadores Avenue under the Arnulfo Briceño dome, Bogotá Channel Avenue with diagonal Santander. The most important part of the city center was also renovated. currently under construction is the Tennis Park Plaza shopping mall located in one of the most exclusive sectors of the city and being the best in the greater Santander.
The entry into force of the Free Trade Agreement between Colombia and the United States in 2007 offered great opportunities for industrial and commercial development of Cucuta because of its border status. Venezuelan industries would establish their factories in Cucuta to export their products to the United States as if they were Colombians, and products from the northern country will arrive to the city at very low prices that would be purchased by Venezuelans.
The private company has invested heavily in the construction of two shopping centers; Unicentro with 200 stores and Ventura Plaza with 300.
In 2005, a restriction was lifted that prevented the construction of buildings over 8 floors, due to the concentration of clay on the land over which the city is built. The abolition of this rule was due to the creation of new technologies. Buildings up to 20 stories are currently being built.
In 2007, real estate growth was 112%, leading the proportion of built-up buildings and real-estate transactions nationwide. , real-estate sales doubled in 2007.
In the light of the censuses, it is noted that Cúcuta, from 1951 to 2014, has increased its population continuously, even though in the course of this period it has given rise to other municipalities (El Zulia, Tibú and Puerto Santander). However, in view of the population's growth rate, it has decreased from 4.97 per cent in 1964 to 1.61 per cent in 2005.
According to the figures presented by the DANE of the 2005 census, the ethnographic composition of the city is:
- White and Mestizos: (98.1%)
- Black, Mulatto, Afro-Colombian or Afro-descendant (1.0%)
- Indigenous (0.9%)
Between January and September 2008, there were 412 violent deaths (killings, suicides and deaths in traffic incidents, armed clashes and accidents), 74 fewer than the same period in the year immediately before. If this trend continues - a 15% decline - 2008 will be the year in which there have been the least such deaths in the last decade.
Statistics issued by the Ministry of Citizen Security (Metrosecurity) - based on those from the National Institute of Legal Medicine - indicate that in the first nine months of 2008 there were 272 homicides, 21 percent less (72 events) than in the same period of 2007. That is, the rate per 100 thousand inhabitants between January and 207. Last September is 45, when in that same period of 2007 it was 12 points higher.
According to the Center for Criminal Investigations (CIC) of the National Police, the rate for every 100,000 inhabitants in Bogotá is 18; Medellín, 29, Cartagena 22, Barranquilla 22, Cali 57 and Bucaramanga 32. The statistics revealed by MetroSeguridad indicate that January (41), March (39) and May (36) were the months of 2008 in which the most murders were recorded. Communes 6, 7, 8 and 9 are where the largest number of episodes were reported.
On April 11, 2008, María Eugenia Riascos (Mayor of Cucuta, 2008-2012) pointed out that in the face of the recent deaths that have occurred in the city, the disarmament plan and the payment of rewards are being studied. further stated that not only when the murder of a major person occurs should rewards be paid, but whenever it occurs. He acknowledged that, out of fear, people who are witnessing a murder are not cooperating with the authorities and that for this reason one of his proposals has been accepted: the creation of the Metropolitan Police of Cucuta, which seeks to strengthen security in the capital of Norte de Santander.
The main places where the population of 15 years and older feels unsafe in Cucuta are: on the public road and on public transport.
In 2013, Cucuta was taken over as the world's most violent city by Business Insider, an American economic and technology portal (the study does not incorporate Asia, Europe and parts of Africa), but was questioned by local authorities.
In 2014, the city borteriza ranks 47th out of the 50 most dangerous cities in the world, report by the Mexican Council of Citizens for Public Security and Criminal Justice.
In 2017, with the economic crisis in the neighboring country, the city is facing the massive influx of Venezuelans seeking economic resources, and with it the rise of illegal groups by territorial control for the smuggling of and drug routes. At the end of 2017, Venezuelan citizens accounted for 43% of the city's immigrants.
The city is located in the geographical region called "Valle de Cúcuta", in the eastern Andes mountain range at an average altitude of 320 meters, on the border with Venezuela. One of its highest points is the summit of Cerro Tasajero (from the indigenous voice meaning "sacred hill") to 987 meters, the hill is covered by a tropical dry forest which houses several families of flora such as legumes and small animals like rodents, which are threatened by mining.
The Pamplonita River crosses the city from south to north, where the Táchira River flows.
The highest place is the Ricaurte village (area 0.4 km²) about 41 km from the city center, founded by priest Demetrio Mendoza in 1921 under the name Mucujun, its temperature hovers between 10 and 17 °C, and is located at 1666 m. The furthest and lowest place is the village of La Punta, located 40 miles from the center of the city and 80 meters away. The municipality has a total area of 1176 km², its urban area of 72 km², not counting the urban areas of the metropolitan area, makes it the sixth largest city in the country. The city borders Tibú to the north, El Zulia to the west and San Cayetano, to the south with Villa del Rosario and Los Patios, and to the east with Puerto Santander and the republic of Venezuela
|Northwest:||North: Tibú||Northeast: Puerto Santander|
|West: Zulia, San Cayetano||This one: Venezuela|
|Southwest:||South: Villa del Rosario, Bochalema, Los Patios||Southeast:|
The uniting of plaques from the Caribbean, Nazca, and South America in constant motion generates earthquakes across the region as well as a variety of landscapes. Colombia is traversed by the Andes mountain range, and one of the critical points is the Table of Saints called the seismic nest (located 130 km southwest of the city) which is constantly on the move and which represents more than 50% of the country's telluric movements, but due to its activity and depth between 150 ~ 170 km, the energy is It is dispersed and not concentrated enough to generate a great earthquake. Being on the border with Venezuela by the state of Táchira, this one is crossed by the fault of Boconó, San Sebastián and El Pilar. Boconó's fault is geomorphologically, is represented by alignment of a series of valleys, linear depressions and other features in a 1-5 km wide corridor, facing, in the direction of N 45° E and over 500 km in the central part of the Venezuelan Andes, between the depression of the Táchira and the Caribbean Sea. The failure of Boconó geomorphologically,
Seismic analysis suggests that Boconó's fault may be part of a plate border of approximately 5 million years, but due to geological nature there are different ages
In the state of Táchira, earthquakes of considerable magnitude have occurred, such as the events of 1610, 1674, 1875, 1894 and 1932 with magnitudes of 7 degrees (MW).
The biggest 8-magnitude earthquake in Venezuela occurred on March 26, 1812, an event that destroyed the most important cities along the Boconó fault zone, covering a distance of approximately 600 km.
On February 3, 1610, one of seven was registered in La Grita, on January 16, 1644, with an epicenter in Pamplona, Colombia, wreaked havoc on the border area. The San José de Cúcuta Valley is located in a high seismic area, as well as 80% of the entire department of Norte de Santander, several movements are registered annually, although most of them are imperceptible for their inhabitants. There is a positive anomaly area Vp, east-west, between 80 and 140km depth, related to the subduction plane of the Caribbean Plate, another positive anomaly area of Vp, south, between 20 and 50 km depth that appears to correspond to the track of Bucaramanga fault, which in this sector is active, a negative anomaly area that begins to the west of Cucuta that could be associated with the Boconó fault, and with the limits of the Santander massif, and among them, the failures of Chitagá and Pamplona.
Following a seismological timeline, the region was hit 700 years ago, 200 years ago, and last time in the 1875 earthquake. Despite the risks, the city has no support plan, no structures to mitigate the effects, and no comprehensive studies of the subsoil. Since early November 2015, the region has been shaken by earthquakes. a few kilometers deep with epicenter near the Venezuelan city of Ejido from the state of Mérida. In Venezuela, the area with the highest seismic activity is a strip of about 100 km wide, defined along Los Andes, where the country's main fault systems are located.
Flora and fauna
After the 1875 earthquake, its residents took the tradition of planting a native tree in their home for every born. Due to the number of trees in the urban area, Cucuta is called Green City, such is the number that in 1996 had 850 thousand trees, much more than its population. Its mountains are covered with tropical dry forest and the government agency for care. of the environment at departmental level is Corponor. In the municipality there are 71 species of trees, both native and introduced, Cují is the symbol tree of Cucuta, it is shaped like a parasol, and experts say it is the last resource left to the eroded areas like the surrounding hills. There are 164 plant species in the city of Cucuta.
In Cucuta, 34 species of reptiles are recorded in 2 orders, 13 families and 31 genera. Colubridae was the richest family with 13 species, only three genera are represented by more than two species. The reptile fauna of Cúcuta is similar to the wetlands of the department of Córdoba and that of the sector of Neguanje, in the PNN Tayrona.
Thirty-four species (20 snakes, 13 lizards and 1 turtle) are recorded, which are grouped in 13 families, representing the orders Squamata (12 families) and Testudines (one family) (Table 1). The family Colubridae is made up of 14 species, representing 38% of the species, being the most species richness; the Gekkonidae family, with 4 species, represents 11%, while the Boidae families (3 species) and Polychrotidae (3 species) each represent 8% of the species registered in Cucuta.
Soon the city has experienced a growth in the boundaries of urban areas, human settlements are reflected in the suburbs that have emerged due to the invasion, which lack paved roads and basic services. Although the city was the way it was formed, as 70% of their homes are the result of illegal land grabbing, in sectors like the western road ring (west of Cucuta) has overflowed the capacity of local authorities. It was precisely the construction of the road in 2012, that in 5 years around them more than 100 invasions appeared in an unsystematic way They have even blocked legal construction projects. The lack of territorial planning causes problems of air pollution, rivers, subsoil, and citizen competitiveness. the absence of a rainwater and black sewerage system, puts at risk not only the rivers of the area, because of the large amount of sewage that go to a direct halt, but the invaders themselves, given the leakages of water in the area the sloping grounds where many of the wooden buildings were built. The armed conflict and the crisis in Venezuela have been important points for the increase in invaded land.
Although Cucuta has received several over-names like "Green City" and "Tree City" at present, the tree density has been drastically reduced by indiscriminate logging in order to produce charcoal and construction in the city.
Since 2012, wild cats have been spotted in the metropolitan area of Cucuta. On October 17, 2012, an ocelot was wandering wounded in the road ring sector, on April 14, 2013 a tigrillo was seen at the top of a tree, that same month a puma was rescued by environmental police and was trapped in a poultry kraal. On 10 september 2015 a puma puppy was in a house across from Carmen de Tonchalá and was later taken to the Barranquilla zoo. On 20 october 2015 an ounce was walking on the streets and entered a supermarket.
These wild animal appearances have been due to deforestation to expand the agricultural frontier, coal mining, livestock, road opening, and construction. The encounter between cats and humans is controversial because animals lose their habitat and flee for food they find available in cities, but humans fear and reject the animal for economic losses to the peasant .
The temperature of Cucuta is determined by thermal floors ranging from the cold, going through the temperate to the warm, where the urban area is, which has an average temperature of 27.6 °C. The highest temperatures range from 35 to 38 °C and the lowest range from 17 to 20 °C. Average annual precipitation is moderate: 806 mm. Wind season occurs between June and September, with rods exceeding 70 km/h.
|Average climatic parameters of Cucuta 1981-2010|
|Temp. max. Aps. (°C)||38.5||38.5||39.0||40.5||41.0||40.5||41.0||42.5||42.5||39.6||38.0||40.5||42.5|
|Temp. max. mean (°C)||10.3||30.8||31.1||31.5||32.8||32.9||33.0||33.9||34.0||32.7||31.2||30.1||32.0|
|Temp. mean (°C)||25.8||26.3||26.7||27.0||27.8||28.1||28.0||28.5||28.4||27.4||26.5||25.8||27.2|
|Temp. min. mean (°C)||21.3||21.8||22.3||22.7||23.4||23.9||23.6||23.7||23.3||22.7||22.4||21.7||22.7|
|Temp. min. Aps. (°C)||16.6||16.0||18.0||18.0||18.0||17.4||18.4||18.0||18.6||18.0||17.6||16.8||16.0|
|Total precipitation (mm)||37||30||38||68||57||32||23||30||42||107||86||72||622|
|Rainfall Days (≥ )||7||7||9||11||13||13||15||12||13||15||13||10||137|
|Relative humidity (%)||76||74||75||76||71||64||62||81||65||72||78||79||71|
|Source: Ideam |
The city is connected by roads to Bogotá, Caracas, Bucaramanga, Duitama, Ocaña and Cartagena. On the other hand, in the field of urban transport, priority is given to other cities in the implementation of the mass transport system.
The main means of urban transport are bushes (or collectives) and taxis. In addition, Planeación Nacional has a project to build a mass transportation system, under the name of Metrobus. The city also has a transport terminal built in 1967, being the first city in Colombia to have a passenger transport terminal[scheduled appointment]. A new terminal is currently being built to replace the old one that still works today.
The North Treasury capital has three main roads. The first links it with Venezuela (through San Cristóbal), the second connects it with the Colombian Atlantic Coast (through Ocaña), and the third and last links it with Bogotá, Medellin, and other Colombian cities through the road to Bucaramanga (which is being expanded to 4 lanes).
The main roads the city has are:
- Cucuta - Venezuela (San Cristóbal - Barinas - Valencia - Caracas - Puerto La Cruz)
- Cucuta - Pamplona - Bucaramanga - Bogotá
- Cucuta - Pamplona - Bucaramanga - Medellín
- Cucuta - Ocaña - Santa Marta - Atlantic Coast.
- Cucuta - Puerto Santander - Venezuela.
- Cucuta - Pamplona - Málaga (Santander) - Duitama - Tunja
Cúcuta has the Camilo Daza International Airport, which was inaugurated on October 10, 1971 by the then President of the Republic, Misael Pastrana Borrero. His name is homage to the precursor of aviation, Camilo Daza.
In 2014, the airport mobilized almost 1,000,000 passengers. has direct and non-stop routes nationwide to Bogotá, Medellín, Arauca, Barranquilla, Cartagena and Bucaramanga. In 2005 the Civil Aeronautics of Colombia announced a renewal of the airport.
Indirectly there is also the Juan Vicente Gómez General Airport of the neighboring Venezuelan municipality of San Antonio del Táchira, but this airport is temporarily closed. In their replacement, Colombian and Venezuelan citizens frequently use the International Airport of Santo Domingo, located in San Antonio del Táchira, Venezuela, approximately 3 hours from the city of Cucuta, which is regularly used to travel to Venezuela, this one has a route to the city of Caracas.
The city stands out for the binational trade and manufacturing, footwear, and marroquineria industry. Its location in the border area between Colombia and Venezuela has allowed strong links with the Venezuelan city of San Cristóbal.
Its Franc Zone is the most active in the whole country and Latin America, largely because Venezuela is Colombia's second largest trading partner.
The most developed industries are: dairy, construction and textiles, footwear and leather goods. It is a major cement producer and the clay and gres industry. Coal mining also occupies an important region in the Cuban economy. The Francisco de Paula Santander University of Cucuta, the National University of Colombia of Bogotá, the University of Antioquia and the Colombian Pedagogical and Technological University of Tunja are the only ones offering the Mines Engineering degree in the country.
The official currency in Colombia is the weight and therefore is that of official circulation, however, due to its proximity with Venezuela, the bolívar is accepted by the vast majority of commercial establishments. Due to the economic crisis in neighboring Venezuela, the country is dollarizing and Cucuta is the center of supplies on the border arriving in large numbers of dollars.
In December 2019, by presidential decree, the Special and Social Economic Zones (ZESEs), which are geographically delimited areas located in Norte de Santander, La Guajira and Arauca, on the border with Venezuela, and the cities of Armenia and Quibdó, were created in Colombia. This program aims to establish a special tax regime in order to attract domestic and foreign investment in sectors such as trade, industry and in the country. agricultural activities. Among the benefits that will be offered to investors by the Zese are the possibility of a 0% rent rate for the first five years and a 50% reduction in the general income rate for the next five years.
Cucuta has modern telecommunications services: fixed telephony (more than 100,000 installed lines) and cellular, wireless broadband networks, cyber cafés and IP communication. The main companies in this sector are Telefónica Movistar, UNE and Claro.
Fixed, Mobile and Internet
Fixed telephone service is provided by Telefónica, Telecom, UNE (EPM Telecommunications) and Claro companies. Mobile phone service is provided by all mobile phone operators in the country with 100% coverage, including the municipalities of the metropolitan area. Of course, Tigo, Movistar, and Tigo have been providing 3G data connections since 2008. The three operators also have GSM technology. Avantel, a company, operates in the city offering trunking service.
Cúcuta was the first city in Colombia and one of the first in the world to have fixed telephone services. There are three fixed telephone operators in the city: Telecom (from Telefónica, which has been providing this service for several decades), Telmex and EPM Telecommunications. Fixed telephony is very low, giving way to mobile telephony which has more users than fixed telephony, a phenomenon that occurs in the rest of the country.
There are several open-channel television channels, one regional one: TRO and five national channels: the 2 private Caracol and RCN, and the 3 public Canal Uno, Señal Institucional and Señal Colombia. The Light operator wiring has its own channel in the metropolitan area called Tu Kanal.
More than 20 radio stations are established in the city on AM and FM, both local and national, of which most belong to the radio stations RCN Radio and Caracol Radio, although there are other independent stations of national tune such as those of the Olympic. The National Police also has its own station.
The city's local newspaper La Opinión (The Opinion) also runs national newspapers such as El Tiempo and El Espectador (The Time).
Aqueduct and sewerage
Aguas Kpital Cúcuta E.S.P. is responsible for the water and sewerage service. The water supply is made using water from the Pamplonita and Zulia rivers, which according to the local environmental director has water for 30 years. The distribution is done through the so-called high grid that is supplied by gravity, and the low grid that has a pumping system.
Electric Power Plants of Norte de Santander (CENS-EPM) meets the demand for electric power in the city, in the municipalities of the conurbation, in the Northern department of Santander and in the southern region of the Cesar department. It also exports energy to the Venezuelan state of Táchira. CENS owns the distribution infrastructure and all sub-stations. Fitch Ratings Colombia has given Cens triple A on several occasions.
Many parts of the city have piping networks through which natural gas is distributed. by Gases del Oriente, the company provides gas services to 56,000 customers. Gas is also traded in cylinders by Norgas, a modality with 60,000 users. The two figures add up to 116,000 and the rest of the gas. 140,000 farms that make up the capital's area show that approximately 24,000 are out of both services.
To combat the smuggling of gas from Venezuela, gas is worth 14% less than in the rest of the country.
Roads and bridges
The city has more than 25 bridges, including the Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander, which cross the international border with Venezuela over the Táchira River, connecting Cucuta with the municipalities of San Antonio del Táchira and Ureña.
Act No. 100 of 1993 governs health in Colombia, which is regulated by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection. In Cucuta and Norte de Santander, health is administered by the Municipal Institute of Health (IMSALUD) and the Departmental Institute of Health, respectively. Entities such as the Colombian Red Cross, the Colombian Civil Defense (emergencies, calamities and natural disasters) and the Family Welfare (ICBF), are part of the social protection system.
The city has the following public health institutions (or State Social Enterprises, ESE): The E.S.E. Erasmo Meoz University Hospital, the E.S.E. Francisco de Paula Santander (Social Security Clinic), the E.S.E. CardioNeuroPulmonar Rehabilitation Center, the E.S.E. Hospital de Los Patios and the E.S.E. Hospital of Villa del Rosario. The San José Clinic, Clinica Medical Duarte, Clinica Norte, Clinica Santa Ana, Clinica Leones, Clinica La Samaritana and Profamilia (sexual and reproductive health) are highlighted in private health centers.
The above-mentioned entities are part of the network of institutions providing health services attached to the Municipal Health Secretariat and the Departmental Health Secretariat. The Erasmo Meoz Hospital has a fourth-level wingspan and specializes in high-complexity surgeries such as transplants and reimplants. In addition, health-care bridges are distributed in the different communes of the city, where attention is paid to varying degrees of complexity. In the city there are a significant number of health promotion entities (E.P.S's) such as Colsanitas, SaludCoop, CafeSalud, etc.
|Distribution educational level (%). |
The educational system includes primary and secondary schools and universities. Official education in primary and high school is free and university education is low cost. There is also a varied system of private colleges and universities.
As you can see from the table, 78 percent of the permanent residents of Cucuta have reached the basic level of education and 73 percent have reached the secondary level. The number of professionals is greater than the number of technicians.[appointment required]
In the city, there are multiple institutions of high academic secondary education, several of which are classified by the ICFES as "very superior".[citation required] The National Learning Service (SENA) undertakes important work in technical and technological training.
Among the city's public libraries, the Julio Pérez Ferrero Library and the Banco de la República Library stand out. Mention should be made of the library of the Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander.
The Francisco de Paula Santander University, in public, is the main university in the city and one of the two universities of Cucuta. It offers professional, technological and technical academic programs in all areas of knowledge, being well recognized by its Faculty of Engineering.
The University of Pamplona -public- is present in the city, through a CREAD and a headquarters in the metropolitan municipality of Villa del Rosario. offers face-to-face and distance academic programs.
The FESC (private) University is present in the city, being one of the two universities of Cucuta. It offers academic programs in the technical, technological and professional modalities, and is well recognized for its faculties of graphic design and fashion design.
The Higher School of Public Administration - public - offers administrative careers.
The SENA (public) has a regional one in the city of Cucuta, distributed in two headquarters, a main one in the fishing district and a satellite in the citadel of Juan Atalaya... It offers technical and technological programs, in both face and distance. In November 2007, SENA Regional Norte de Santander obtained the quality management certification ISO 9001-2000, due to the great achievements in the Multisectoral Center (Caim) (provision of the comprehensive vocational training service for the sectors of trade and services, industry, construction and health) as well as the Center for the Agricultural, Agricultural and Extractive Sector (Casa).
The Universidad Libre (Colombia) - Sectional Cúcuta offers administrative and engineering careers, and is well known for its Faculty of Law. The same ISO 9001-2000 certified account.
The Private Minuto de Dios University Corporation offers distance learning programs.
The University of Santander - private - offers academic programs both professional and technological.
Simón Bolívar University - private - offers academic programs in law, business administration, international commerce and business, psychology, social work, and systems engineering.
Pre-university education takes place at four levels: pre-school, primary, vocational and high school. Academic activity takes place between February and November, with three months of vacation (June, December and January) as well as two weeks of recess: Easter and the first week of October.
The city has about 400 schools with calendars A and B. The Calasanz school was listed in box 22 of the ICFES exam tests in 2001, then climbed to the 16th when one of its students managed to be the best in the Saber 11 - 2015 nationwide. In 2018 there were 3 schools in the city of the top 15 in the country, the National Technical Institute of Commerce was on the top 5 and is one of the best public schools in the country.
Art and culture
The official symbols of the city are: the flag, the shield and the anthem. Many of its citizens have participated in the development of Colombian history, including General Francisco de Paula Santander (originally from Villa del Rosario, a military and statesman of the time of independence), General Camilo Daza (Pamplonés, precursor to aviation in Colombia) and Virgilio Barco (former president of the Republic). Among the athletes is Fabiola Zuluaga, one of the best tennis players in Colombia, Jossimar Calvo, a multi-medalist gymnast in Pan American and Olympic games, and James Rodríguez, a footballer who plays in Europe.
According to the Northern Governor of Santander, some of the most illustrious Cucuteños are as follows:
- Francisco de Paula Santander. Military and political hero of Colombia's independence.
- Virgilio Barco. President of Colombia (1986-1990).
- James Rodríguez Player of the Colombian national football team and Real Madrid football club of the Spanish Premier League In 2014 he won the FIFA World Cup gold boot.
- Fabiola Zuluaga. The best tennis player in Colombia's history.
- María Camila Osorio Serrano. Colombian tennis player, 2019 Junior Open winner.
- Elias M. Soto. A musician who composed the Brisas del Pamplonita, one of the most traditional bambucos in Colombia.
- Rafael García Herreros. A scholar priest, founder of the Catholic religious group Minuto de Dios.
- Julio Pérez Ferrero. Prominent pedagogue.
- Julio Pérez Ferrero Library. Activities such as the Book Festival take place there. Other important cultural spaces are the Casa de la Cultura, founded in 1960 and currently hosted by the School of Fine Arts of the University of Pamplona; the Clock Tower which is the administrative headquarters of the Secretariat of Culture and Tourism and the architectural heritage of the city.
- In 2008, the Casa Natal de Francisco de Paula Santander was converted into a museum. The residence of the next president is located in the Parque de la Gran Colombia next to the Historical Temple, where the constitution that gave birth to the former republic was signed.
- La Quinta Teresa is a colonial house built in 1893 and restored in 2014, currently functional as a cultural center of the department of Norte de Santander.
- Clock Tower Cultural Center. Multipurpose building. Headquarters of the Secretariat of Culture of Norte de Santander.
- The Cultural Area of the Banco de la República has rooms for art exhibitions and artistic presentations. The city is home to various cultural events organized by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, including national and international plays.
Cucuteña's gastronomy is a variety of the national and subclass gastronomy of the Santanders. They are traditional dishes like chickpea cake, chicken rice, rice with meat, pea rice and cassava rice. Mute, soup prepared with pork, corn, potato and chick peas, served with rice and chick and Yuca cakes. you can also eat the famous stuffed potato (cake)
The kid, who eats roast or cooked, like the goat pepitoria, which is made with heart grit, kidney, liver, frites with onion and tomato, and other ingredients. Because it is a border area with Venezuela, in Cucuta it is also traditional the hallacas.
Turmada, a kind of cake prepared with boiled eggs, savannah potato, cheese, onion, tomato, pepper, parsley, porro celery, beer sausage (optional), homey, milk, natas, black sauce and pepper, is the city's main dish. As for traditional beverages, you will notice the water of panela, and as for sweets, goat's milk cuts, dragging, combined candy and spinsters.
it also consumes the pussy or stuffed, which is a coagulated blood sausage, usually of pork, and dark color.
La hallaca is a typical Venezuelan and Cucutta wrapped dish consisting of a mass of corn flour seasoned with broth of chicken or chicken and colored with bean or achiote, stuffed with a stew of beef, pork and chicken or chicken (although there are versions that carry fish), to which olives, grapes, capers, pimentón and fish are added onion, wrapped in rectangular form in banana or bijao leaves (banana-like palm, but more textured), to finally be tied with pabilo or pita and boiled in water.
In Cucuta, Manuel Valdivielso's novel Los Machos no Va Together en la cine (2014), which deals with a love relationship between two gay teenagers, is set in. Cúcuta is the author's hometown, who became aware of the problem of homophobia when he moved to Bogotá and realized the different social tolerance that existed in the capital regarding homosexuality.
Football and basketball are the most practiced sports in the city. For professional soccer development, the city has the General Santander Stadium, with 45,000 spectators, is one of the most capable settings in the country. For youth or amateur practice, synthetic courts have proliferated throughout the urban perimeter in recent years. It also has the Toto Hernández Coliseum for professional development of basketball, being one of the best scenarios in the country and an icon of North Santander's sporting activity.
The Cucuta Deportivo is the city's professional soccer team. He currently plays in the first A category of Colombian Professional Football, after having risen in the 2018 Eagle tournament, and later became champion of it. It is one of the historic clubs in Colombia. Founded on September 10, 1924 as Cúcuta Foot-ball Club, he has won the title of first division Colombian championship in the 2006-II season. It also holds three second division titles in the seasons of 1995-96, 2005 and 2018. It participated in the 2007 Copa Libertadores, reaching semi-finals, falling in front of the Argentine Boca Juniors; and in the 2008 Copa Libertadores (Liberators' Cup) reaching the quarterfinals, falling against Brazil's Santos. On November 22, 2007, he won various awards and awards from Fox Sports TV network, Colombia edition.
The city is also known as the capital basketball of Colombia, not only for its history, but also for the great achievements that can be observed in this sport today. The clearest example is that the team Norte de Santander (formerly known as "Cañoneros"), which won the tournaments in the Colombian Professional Basketball in 2008 and 2009. Its current representative in this sport is the Halcones team that, like the team Norte de Santander at the time, plays its local matches in the Toto Hernández Coliseum. This stage is also home to the Cúcuta Nice futsal team, who plays in the Liga Argos.
The triumphs of Cuban tennis player Fabiola Zuluaga have given the sport a special place in the city and in the department. The sportswoman won numerous contests during her career. The city has several tennis venues such as the Tennis Club.
Other important sports venues include the Olympic Pool located near the Stadium and two skating rinks, one on Libertadores Avenue and the other on Quinta Bosch district.
The city is currently expanding in terms of the development of new sports disciplines. Among these disciplines we can highlight rugby with the creation in 2005 of the Rugby Club Cucuta. Today there are 3 clubs of seniors that compete regularly, Cúcuta Rugby, Cobra Rugby and Carboneros UFPS. There are also development hotspots such as Udes and Seine. In the category under 18, there is the youth league formed by Clubes Cobras Rugby Club and Templarios, schools such as La Salle and INEM, UFPS and the Sports Training School Cazadores.
Recently Colsports gave the endorsement for the creation of the Nortesantandereana Rugby League made up of teams from Cucuta mainly and to a lesser extent from Ocaña, Pamplona and El Zulia.
Architecture and urban planning
The urban perimeter presents a rich architecture related to the independence of Colombia. of this period are places like the House of Santander, the Historical Temple (where the Congress of Cucuta was held) and the Casa de La Bagatela (which was the residence of Antonio Nariño). Other places that form part of the architectural heritage are the Julio Pérez Ferrero Library, the Clock Tower as well as the Quinta Teresa and the Carmen Church, the latter two are part of the small number of buildings that survived the 1875 Earthquake.
Another notable place is El Malecón, which is located on Libertadores Avenue and runs about 6 miles along the Pamplonita River with an ideal infrastructure for recreation and nightlife.
Recently, large malls and multinational stores have been opened.
In Cucuta, religious temples have traditionally been Catholic, although there are evangelical and other religious minorities. The most important church in historical and architectural terms is the Historical Temple located in the Parque Grancolombiano, where the Constitution of Cucuta was signed, with which the Greater Colombia was created.
The neoclassical San José Cathedral is located in front of Santander Park, the chapel of Santa Ana (which survived the 1875 Earthquake) and the church of San Antonio. These temples located in the center of the city retain high-value religious objects. Among the evangelical-pentecostal churches is the Centro Cristiano, linked to the Council of the Assemblies of God of Colombia, with several places of worship throughout the urban area, and whose main headquarters in the Los Pinos neighborhood has an auditorium with a capacity of 5,000 people.
The city is the cradle of important national independence lovers, like Francisco de Paula Santander or people who have created important institutions for the country like Camilo Daza, founder of the Colombian Air Force. This is why the city has countless monuments, statues and tributes in memory of events and characters in the country's history.
Among the monuments to illustrious characters are the statue of Simón Bolívar, located in the park of the same name, donation from the Venezuelan government. The statue of Francisco de Paula Santander, located in the park of the same name, in front of the Mayor of Cucuta and the Cathedral of San José. The statue of the Liberators, located on the avenue of the same name. The bust of Juana Rangel de Cuéllar, founder of Cucutta. The Padilla Monument, an obelisk built in honor of Admiral José Prudencio Padilla in 1923. The Monument to Christ the King, opened in 1947 (Avenue 4 with Street 19). El Monumento a Padre Rafael García Herreros, located on the seedbed of the bridge that was built as an extension of Avenida Cero. Also the Arnulfo Briceño Monument, located in the redom in front of the Gaitán Durán bridge, which connects the city with the passage to the municipality of Ureña in Venezuela.
Among the monuments dedicated to events are the concrete 6 m high Battle Monument of Cucuta, rebuilt after the 1875 Cúcuta Earthquake by the Society of Public Improvements. The Monument to the Battle of Boyacá, located in Colón Park, was built in honor of Francisco de Paula Santander, who was the organizer of this confrontation that sealed the Independence of Colombia. The Locomotora Monument, located next to the transport terminal and showing the first wagon of one of the trains owned by the late Cúcuta Railway conglomerate.
Also noteworthy is the sculpture of Edgar Negret, which pays tribute to motherhood, at the entrance of the Barco Foundation and the statue of the Motilons, located next to the transport terminal, in tribute to the indigenous people.
Cúcuta is characterized by a large number of parks and green areas.
- Grancolombian Park. It is the largest in the city. It houses the Natal House of Santander and the Historical Temple (where the Congress of Cucuta was held in 1821).
- Santander Park. It is located in the heart of the city, avenues 5th and 6th, streets 10 and 11, opposite the Municipal Mayor and the Metropolitan Cathedral.
- La Victoria Square (Colón Park). Located in the important area of La Playa, 12th and 13th Streets, 2nd and 3rd Avenues. Monument to the victory of the patriots in the Battle of Boyacá.
- Simón Bolívar Park. Located in the Colsag area. It has an equestrian statue of the Liberator, melted in bronze, a replica of one erected in Rome, of Pietro Canonica. Donation from the Venezuelan government, was melted in La Estancia de Caracas workshops by sculptor Martín Toledo.
- Juana Rangel de Cuéllar Park. It is located on the diagonal Santander with avenue 6th. There is a place for the founder, by agreement of 14 July 1926, of the Municipal Council; it belongs to the famous and traditional Carora courtyard.
- Francisco Andrade Troconis Park. Set on Promenade des Proceres, it features the bust of the city's builder engineer. Work by Olinto Marcucci
- Antonia Santos Park. Located on 7th Avenue and 6th Street, it exhibits the bust of heroin, given by artist Alberto Jurgesen in 1922.
- Mercedes Park. Located opposite San Antonio church, it pays homage to Cuban heroine Mercedes Ábrego.
- San Rafael Park. He is located on the second avenue, on 24th Street, facing the church of the same name.
The Malecón is located on Libertadores Avenue, built to prevent the overflow of the Pamplonita River, and is used as a recreation area where people can find restaurants and sports sites (like a rollercoaster), and vast green areas, among other things.
On Sundays, from 6 a.m. to noon, the whole of Av. Libertadores (one of the most important in the city) closes their doors to the "Ciclovía", where only people can travel, on foot, by bike, or by skates, but no vehicle or motorcycle is allowed to move.
It is one of the longest seawalls in Colombia, with more than 5 miles of nightclubs, bars, restaurants, parks, entertainment venues, a watchtower, among others.
The seawall has undergone several renovations to make it a local tourist destination.
- St. Kitts, Venezuela
- San Antonio del Táchira, Venezuela
- Tunja, Colombia
- Ureña, Venezuela
- Zaragoza, Spain
- Portal:Cucutta. Content related to Cucuta.
- Portal: Colombia. Content related to Colombia.
- Annex: Municipalities of Colombia by population
- Other days' meeting (1945). Carlos Luis Jacome. Departmental printing.
- From Old Cucuta (1975). Luis Febres Cordero. People's Bank.
- Monography of the municipality of Cúcuta (1983). National Administrative Department of Statistics.
- Villa del Rosario de Cúcuta, cradle of the Republic (1971). Manuel Buenahora.
- Cucutta History. Documents on its founding (1962). Enrique Ortega Ricaurte.
- Cucuta, socioeconomic and administrative bases for the integral planning of the municipality (1970). Víctor Contreras Niño. University of the Andes (Colombia).
- Cúcuta, 250 years old (1983). Antonio García Herreros. Independent.
- Old and other (1987). Carlos Eduardo Orduz. Independent.